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Designing Dynamic Services

By Tojin T. Eapen

Dynamic services are not a new concept. In fact, they have been around for quite some time, with examples like Keedoozle, a self-service grocery store from the 1960s, showcasing the use of dynamic service attributes. Personalization is a dynamic service where user preferences or attributes are used to modify a product or service attribute. However, new innovations are bringing new levels of dynamics in services.

Service dynamics can be at three levels: the core product or service, the enabling system, and the environment. Attributes can be both componential (such as ingredient, design, or color) or functional (such as speed). Attributes can include attributes of the core offering (such as food ingredients or medical procedures), the enabling system (such as menus, staff, or speed of delivery), or the environment (such as d├ęcor or ambiance). Pricing and promotions can also be made dynamic.

Table 1: Attributes and Inputs for Dynamic Services in Restaurants



Dish attributes
Cooking time
Time to deliver
Price, Promotion
Server clothing

Outside temperature
Number of customers
Dish attributes
Customer attributes
Customer preference

There are several ways in which service at a restaurant can be made dynamic through the interaction of different inputs and attributes listed in Table 1. Here are a few examples:

  • The soup spoon in the restaurant has an indication that tells how hot the soup is.
  • Discounts for customers are based on their weight.
  • The menu is decided based on the availability of seasonal produce or by an online vote.
  • The staff at the restaurant wear a different color outfit each day.
  • The service delivery time is varied based on customer preference.
  • The price of the product is modified based on the time of day or availability of ingredients.
  • The ambiance of the room is altered based on the type of cuisine ordered.

Designing dynamic services involves considering a range of attributes and inputs at different levels, such as the core product or service, the enabling system, and the environment. By carefully analyzing and manipulating these attributes, businesses can offer personalized and dynamic services that meet the needs and preferences of their customers.

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